Datong Great Wall at Zhenchuankou

October 25th, 2014
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The rammed earth Great Wall at Zhenchuanlou is an important section of Datong Great Wall built in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).  Zhenchuankou literally means “Control Mountain Pass” and the wall that was built to guide the pass linking Datong and Inner Mongolia. In Ming Dynasty, the Mongol nomads often raided Datong through the pass at Zhenchuankou.

Zhenchuankou Great Wall was made of earth, tamped earth wall, still very firm despite of the rain and wind in the past 500 years. The earth wall at Zhenchuankou is over 5 metes high, dotted with guide-towers and beacon-towers at a short interval.

The Wall at Zhenchuankou extends to Hongcibu Fortress and Deshengbu Fortress in the west direction and to Zhenbianbu Fortress in the east direction. 2.5 km south of Zhenchuankou Great Wall is the ancient Zhenchuanbu Fortress where the soldiers stationed for defending the Wall and the border.

An ancient village for the same name of Zhenchuankou Village is perched near the Wall.  It is a laid-back  scrubby village with many young people having left for the cities to make a better living.  Many houses are either abandoned or dilapidated.

Zhenchuankou Great Wall,  some give way to the roads,  ruined  and overgrown.

Zhenchuankou Great Wall,

Zhenchuankou Great Wall

Guide-Towers and Beacon-Towers are dotted at short intervals atop or near the Wall.

Guide-Towers and Beacon-Towers

Guide-Towers and Beacon-Towers

Hike on the overgrown Wall snaking on the flat plain.

Hike on the overgrown Wall snaking on the flat plain.

Hike on the overgrown Wall snaking on the flat plain.

The earth Wall is sandwiched by the fields on the both sides.

The earth Wall is sandwiched by the fields on the both sides.

The earth Wall is sandwiched by the fields on the both sides.

More dilapidated guide towers  and beacon towers

More dilapidated guide towers  and beacon towers

More dilapidated guide towers and beacon towers

Some sections are still firm and relatively well kept despite of the 500 years’ rain and wind.

Some sections are still firm

Some sections are still firm

Local villagers are harvesting corns in the corn fields.

Local villagers are harvesting corns in the corn fields.

Local villagers are harvesting corns in the corn fields.

Keep on hiking to Zhuanchuankou Village

Keep on hiking to Zhuanchuankou Village

Keep on hiking to Zhuanchuankou Village

 

The scrubby and timeless Zhenchuankou Village

The scrubby and timeless Zhenchuankou Village

The scrubby and timeless Zhenchuankou Village

Senior villagers are seen chatting and sunshine bathing.

Senior villagers are seen chatting and sunshine bathing.

Senior villagers are seen chatting and sunshine bathing.

The door frame at one of the houses by the only one street village

The door frame at one of the houses by the only one street village

The door frame at one of the houses by the only one street village

A glimpse of  an earth cave house in the village

A glimpse of  an earth cave house in the village

A glimpse of an earth cave house in the village

Any questions, just drop a line.

Deshengbu Fortress at Datong Great Wall

October 25th, 2014
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Deshengbu Fortress was one of the 52 fortresses built along the Datong Great Wall in Ming Dynasty ( 1368-1644). Deshengbu, literally “Victory Fort”,  was built 1 km south of the pass connecting Datong and Inner Mongolia, an strategically important garrison town in Ming Dynasty.  Today the major highways linking Datong and Hohhot still run through the pass.

Deshengbu Fort originally was built 1538 during the reign of Jiajing Emperor in Ming Dynasty.  In 1574 the fortress was blanketed with bricks and stones. 18 guide-towers were constructed atop the  surrounding wall with 4 turrets on the four corners of the wall.  In 1607, Deshengbu Fortress was renovated, which was recorded on the stone plaque that can be still seen on the wall inside the south gate.

Like other fortresses, Deshengbu Fortress was one of the military bases along the Wall, where the frontier soldiers stationed defending the Wall against the Mongol nomads. In Ming Dynasty the Mongol warlords often came across the borderland, looting and slaughtering, often forcing the Ming Dynasty Government to open the border market.

So, in addition to the defense garrison town, Deshengbu Fortress also served as a bridge connecting the  cultural  and commercial exchange between Ming and Mongols.  In 1571, a grand ceremony was held in Deshengbu Fortress,   granting  Altan Khan the title of Shunyi Wang. Altan Khan was  the ruler of the Tümed Mongols.

Altan Khan led raids into China in 1529, 1530 and 1542 returning with plunder and livestock.  The Chinese emperor was forced to grant special trading rights to Mongols, after signing a peace treaty with him in 1571, allowing it to trade horses for silks. Deshengbu Fortress became an important Horse Market in the later Ming Dynasty.

Seeing a signboard pointing to the road  leading to Deshengbu village which is located inside Deshengbu Fortress.

Seeing a signboard pointing to the road  leading to Deshengbu villag

Seeing a signboard pointing to the road leading to Deshengbu villag

Soon we come up to the south gate of the fortress.  Almost all the bricks and stones on the wall have been taken away for building houses and you will  see  many stone houses inside the castle.

Soon we come up to the south gate of the fortress

Soon we come up to the south gate of the fortress

The massive south gate is a recent restoration with the two broken walls standing south of the gate.  The two broken ramparts are remnants of the inner city of the castle.

The massive south gate is a recent restoratio

The massive south gate is a recent restoratio

The south wall stands firmly though the tamed brick wall looks a bit dilapidated, extending on the two sides and circling the fortress.

The south wall stands firmly.

The south wall stands firmly.

We walk through the archway of the south gate, seeing  the trodden pavement the south-north axis street in the village.

We walk through the archway of the south gate

We walk through the archway of the south gate

On the wall inside the gate, we find a stone plaque carved with the words recording the reconstruction in 1604 during the reign of Wanli Emperor in Ming Dynasty. Ironically  on the stone plaque brushed with the words quoted from Mao Zedong.

Ironically  on the stone plaque brushed with the words quoted from Mao Zedong.

Ironically on the stone plaque brushed with the words quoted from Mao Zedong.

For a better view of the whole fortress and the village,we ascend the south gate, having a nice panorama of the whole area. We can see clearly the outline of the dilapidated wall surrounding the castle – Today’s Deshengbu Village. Rows of stone houses perched inside the castle, scrubby and a bit rundown.

On the top of the south gate,  I’m briefed by Mr. Tao on the history of the fortress.

I'm briefed by Mr. Tao on the history of the fortress

I’m briefed by Mr. Tao on the history of the fortress

Standing on the top of South Gate and looking down in the east direction.

Standing on the top of South Gate and looking in the east direction.

Standing on the top of South Gate and looking in the east direction.

On the top of the south gate and looking down at the north along the south-north axis.

n the top of the south gate and looking at the north along the south-north axis

On the top of the south gate and looking at the north along the south-north axis

On the top of the south gate, I’m looking down at the castle in the west direction.

 I'm looking down at the castle in the west direction

I’m looking down at the castle in the west direction

Looking in the south direction,  I see two large remnants of the ramparts that are part of the wall circling the former inner city of the fortress.

two large remnants of the ramparts

two large remnants of the ramparts

We come down from the south gate and walk along the south-north axis street inside the village. We see many walls and houses that are made of stones and bricks that may have been taken from those in the walls surrounding the castle.

Stone walls and houses

Stone walls and houses

At the northern end of the street, we see an unrestored Ming-era gate which used to have  a pavilion enshrining Emperor Jade on its top.

 an unrestored Ming-era gate

an unrestored Ming-era gate

North of the Ming-era gate is the north wall of the castle.

North of the Ming-era gate is the north wall of the castle.

North of the Ming-era gate is the north wall of the castle.

Any questions,  just drop a line.

Datong Great Wall

October 23rd, 2014
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Have you ever had a bold idea of planning your Datong Great Wall Tour? If you have seen the images of the Great Wall near Beijing, you may believe the Great Wall of China is mainly made of majestic bricks and stones. No, much of the Great Wall we see today were built in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), which is not stone but earth! For the 6700 km Ming Dynasty Great Wall, only over 1000 km section of the Wall is stone.

The Great Wall we see today mainly refers to the Great Wall built in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), a massive wall construction era. The Ming Dynasty Government established so-called Nine Frontier Important Towns which were in charge of the whole over 6000 km chunk of the Great Wall from Shanhaiguan Pass to Jiayuguan Pass.

The ancient Datong was one of the Nine Frontier Important Towns, maintaining the 335km Great Wall within Datong and defending against the Mongol raiders.Datong Great Wall is also known as “Outer Section of the Great Wall” snaking 335km along the border between today’s Shanxi Province and Inner Mongolia which was a border wall – the frontier between Mongolia and the Chinese heartland in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

Datong Great Wall was an important part of the Wall’s central section from the Yellow River to the passes leading to Beijing, vital to the defense of both central China and Beijing. Actually the Great Wall near Datong here doubles and triples like a bit of DNA and Datong lies between two lines – Outer Great Wall and Inner Great Wall.

Along the 335km Datong Outer Great Wall, you still can see much of the remnants of the ramparts, dilapidated forts, crumbling and overgrown; some sections vanish into gaps of roads, quarries, and reservoirs; some give away to camel’s humps or saw-teeth blasted by wind and washed by rain; sometimes no more than a gentle bank a meter or two in height and sometimes nothing at all.

Recently, escorted by a local Datong guide – Mr.Tao, I’ve selectively visited Datong Great Wall for 3 days. Now I’d like to give you a general picture with broad strokes of the ancient Great Wall north of Datong. Come to Datong to find its charm and take in fresh air!

The early morning 45-minute flight from Beijing Capital Airport brings me safely to Datong Yungang Airport. Met by my escort – Mr. Tao and drives directly to Datong’s city center. On the way, Mr. Tao proudly I’m briefed on the great change that has been taken place in Datong, which has been transformed from a polluted base for coal production base into a booming city. Now, roads are expanded or reconstructed, new residential apartments built, pretty bridges set up and even the ancient city wall in Datong has been totally restored! Don’t hesitate to start your Datong Tour Now!

After a simple street food breakfast and a short break, Mr. Tao gives me a general introduction to the Wall near Datong and the travel plan for the 3-day Datong Great Wall trip. The 3-day Great Wall trip without pre-arranged logistic supply is a touch work-out for me. A big lunch is arranged to prepare for the harsh days ahead.

Geared with water, food and sleeping bags, at 2:00 pm we start our 3-day trip from Datong’s city center. One hour’s drive takes us to our first destination – Deshengbu Fortress, 45km to the northwest of Datong. We plan to go from Deshengbu Fortress further to the east direction along the Wall either by walk, or hitchhike if necessary, an impromptu trip.

Deshengbu Fortress
It is recorded that along the 335km Datong Outer Great Wall there used to be 52 fortress and Deshengbu was one of the ancient walled, garrison towns that are the epitome of north China. Deshengbu Fort was built on the south of the important pass linking Datong to Inner Mongolia, a strategically important passage.

The north entrance to Deshengbu Fortress.

The north entrance to Deshengbu Fortress.

Standing on the top of  the north gate, I have a panoramic view of the village within the compound of the fort circled by the remnants of the ramparts.

A panoramic view of the village within compound of the fort

A panoramic view of the village within compound of the fort

It is a  laid back village with its medieval streets and stone-walled compounds ( some bricks from the walls of Deshengbu  Fortress).

A laid back village within Deshengbu Fort.

A laid back village within Deshengbu Fort.

Wander the dirt roads lined with stone and brick houses, old people idle and chat. To the north end you will see  an unrestored Ming-era gate.

A unrestored Ming-era gate.

A unrestored Ming-era gate

You may hike along the tamped earth wall north of Deshengbu Fort to the east direction for about 13 km and reach the next former garrison town – Hongcibu Fortress. Given 3 days for such a long wall hike ahead of us, to save time and energy we ask our driver to send us directly to Hongcibu Fortress and start our Datong Great Wall trip there.

Hongcibu Fortress
Hongcibu Garrison Town was one of the most famous fortresses along Datong Great Wall. But now not much left for the remnants of the ramparts around the fort. Its south wall is nothing at all. The north archway gate is left with two earth high ramparts with the exterior bricks taken away by the local villagers for building houses.

 The north archway gate is seriously damaged.

The north archway gate is seriously damaged.

Hike from Hongcibu Fort to Zhenchuan Fort
We start from our hike from the wall north of Hongcibu Fort. Within the 3 hours before dark, it is almost impossible to cover the hike along the 15km tamped earth wall from Hongcibu to Zhenchuankou Great Wall 2.5km north of Zhenchuan Fortress.

We need to cross over a steep mountain  known as Fangshan (Square Mountain). My escort – Mr.Tao suggests a short cut hiking route leading up to the steep hill. Later it shows this section is most tiring and tough for two of us trudging up the hill with heavy bags filled with food,water and sleeping bags and more.

We plunge on uphill through bushes and saplings and walk along  the tamped earth section of the Great Wall.

We plunge on uphill through bushes and saplings.

We plunge on uphill through bushes and saplings.

Scrambling up the overgrown and even crumbling  earth Great Wall perched on the steep slopes of Fangshan Mountain.

Scrambling up the overgrown and even crumbling  earth Great Wall

Scrambling up the overgrown and even crumbling earth Great Wall

To catch up with the time left before dark, Mr. Tao chooses a short cut away from the Great Wall for a faster  ascent up to the summit. The short cut does reduce our hiking distance, but doesn’t save our energy, a tiring and tough climb!

A tiring and tough climb

A tiring and tough climb

Reaching the summit, we see the sun is setting, blanketing the top  and wall in golden rays. The dilapidated beacon-tower still stands on the summit blasted by wind and washed by rain.

. The dilapidated beacon-tower still stands on the summit blasted by wind and rain.

The dilapidated beacon-tower still stands on the summit blasted by wind and rain.

 

The rigorous climb awards us with the amazing view of the plateau on the summit with the beautiful sunset. We are walking along the tamped earth Great Wall perched on the plateau with the backdrop of sunset glow.

The rigorous climb awards us with the amazing view.

The rigorous climb awards us with the amazing view on the summit.

Walking on the wild section of the earth Great Wall on the flat summit, communicating in heart  with the soldiers who eked out their lives for the safety of the country over 500 years ago.

Walking on the wild section of the earth Great Wall on the flat summit

Walking on the wild section of the earth Great Wall on the flat summit

It is getting dark and the Great Wall hike after nightfall is risky. So we decide to stop walking along the Wall and hike down the hill. Before we reach a courtyard home in the village down the hill, it has been already dark outside. We knock at the door. It is a cave house with  a spacious courtyard.

The host Mr. Li is very friendly. He agrees to let us  put up for the night  in his cave house. And he even invites us to have dinner with them ( including his son and his son’s wife).

Having dinner with Li's family.

Having dinner with Li’s family.

Spreading the sleeping bags on the kang- a stone bed with a stove both for cooking and warming in the house. Soon we both fall asleep.  With much hiking ahead, we have to get up early. At this moment, we have the chance to see the 4-hole cave house.

The earth houses common in the Loess Plateau in Henan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai. Cave houses are generally carved out of a hillside, a vertical side of a loess hill, warm in winter and cool in summer.

Li's Cave House

Li’s Cave House

Seeing we have so much to carry on the tough Great Wall hike, Mr. Li is ready to give us a hitchhike using his tractor and brings us to the starting point of Zhenchuankou Great Wall about 2.5km north of his village.

Hitchhike Li's tractor

Hitchhike Li’s tractor

Hike from Zhenchuankou to Zhenbianbu Fortress
Getting off the tractor, we start our hike at Zhenchuankou Great Wall towards Zhenbian Fortress. The earth rammed wall at Zhenbiankou is hard and firm and are still well kept despite of the wind and rain for the past over 500 years.  The wall mostly made of earth tamped  down between planks in layers one on top of the other.

The wall mostly made of earth tamped  down

The wall mostly made of earth tamped down

Guide-towers and beacon-towers are dotted on the wall or by the wall. Blasted by wind and washed by rain, some sections  are just camel’s humps or low banks, or nothing at all.

Guide-towers and beacon-towers are dotted on the wall or by the wall.

Guide-towers and beacon-towers are dotted on the wall or by the wall.

Hike along  the rugged wall ridge with bushes and saplings. Unlike the wall near Beijing built on the summit of the high mountains, most of the earth wall here built on the flat plain or at the base of the mountain with much vulnerability to the raids from the nomads. On the both sides of the wall are fields planted with corns, sorghum and potatoes.

Hike along  the rugged wall ridge with bushes and saplings.

Hike along the rugged wall ridge with bushes and saplings.

It is an autumn harvest time and the farmers are busy collecting corns on the fields.

It is an autumn harvest time

It is an autumn harvest time

We continue to walk  on the wild wall top overlooking the farmlands on both sides of the wall below, feeling the silence and tranquility of the yellow dragon snaking extending east and north.

Continue to walk  on the wild wall top

Continue to walk on the wild wall top

We reach the next village known as Zhenchuankou Village with over 50 households. In Ming Dynasty was also a small castle for military defense. Now the village looks rundown, dusty and scrubby.  Young people have almost all left the village for migrating to the cities for work. We don’t how long the village will keep on with old people taking caring of the fields and themselves.

We reach the next village known as Heizuishan Village

We reach the next village known as Heizuishan Village

The local villagers are warm and friendly, worried that we are unable to walk to our next destination – Zhenbianbu  Fortress, still over 10 km away. Seeing we carry so much backpack, they persuade a passing by SUV to give us a hitchhike to Zhenbianbu Fort.

Zhenbianbu Fortress
Arriving at Zhenbianbu Fortress, we are amazed at the ancient walled garrison town that is still populated by the local village. The fortress was built in 1539. People live in the stone and brick houses. The scene would have a timeless quality except for a few electricity poles and motorbikes. Year after year people live the same farm life.

Zhenbianbu Fortress

Zhenbianbu Fortress

The ancient gate is dilapidated, showing us its past pride.  The stone and brick gate is under the protection of the local government. We see some construction is going on and learn that the local government plans to turn Zhenbianbu Fortress into a tourist attraction. So come here early before it is too touristy.

The ancient gate is dilapidated

The ancient gate is dilapidated

After one hour’s visit in Zhenbianbu Fortress, we again hitchhike a van taking us from Zhenbanbu Fortress to Shoukounu Fortress, a 20km drive.  Accompanied by the winding yellow earth Great Wall, it is scenic drive. The wall extends to the east till Beijing.

Accompanied by the winding yellow earth Great Wall, it is scenic drive.

Accompanied by the winding yellow earth Great Wall, it is scenic drive.

Shoukoubu Fortress
We get to Shoukoubu Fort in the late afternoon. “Shoukoubu” literally means “Defending the Ravine Fort”.  Here there is a valley or ravine in the mountain easy for an access by the nomad warlords in Ming Dynasty, hence the fort built in 1546 with bricks and stones for military defense purpose.  The valley or the pass divides the wall here into the east section and west section.

Parts of the ramparts around the fort are still visible. The Shoukoubu Village is within the former castle. Losing no time, we walk to the east side to have better pictures of the Wall in the sunset glow.

the Wall in the sunset glow

the Wall in the sunset glow

The crumbling Great Wall snakes down the steep mountain under the setting sun with a backdrop of colorful autumn leaves.

The crumbling Great Wall snakes down

The crumbling Great Wall snakes down

The whole fortress or the local village is perched on the valley with high mountains surrounded in  three sides.  We have to give up the idea of taking sunset or sunrise pictures due to the high mountains blocking the sun and walk to the village in the castle for staying overnight.  The fortress or the village now is located on the west side of the valley with the west section of the wall and high beacon towers looming over it.

Shoukoubu Village

Shoukoubu Village

Next morning, I climb up the west section of the Wall on the steep hillside. The rammed wall feels hard and firm, going up along the rugged mountain. Eroded by the rain and blasted by rain, the wall appears like undulating saw-teeth perched on the steep slope.

The west section of the Wall on the steep hillside

The west section of the Wall on the steep hillside

Standing on the west side of the valley with the section of the hard yellow earth wall running down to the bottom of the valley, have a panorama of the fortress ( or the village), the wall broken at the mouth of the valley and the east section of the Wall, better understanding the name of the fortress – Shoukoubu ( Defending the valley Castle ).

Wall on the both sides of the valley

Wall on the both sides of the valley

Looking at the east direction, I’m amazed by the autumn view of the Wall and colorful apricot trees. The guide-towers and beacon-towers are scattered around the mountain in the east side in a far distant mist with the backdrop of the autumn apricot trees and the courtyards in the village.

The autumn view of the Wall and colorful apricot trees

The autumn view of the Wall and colorful apricot trees

Here you can find some round beacon towers perched on the west slopes of the mountain rarely seen in Beijing.

some round beacon towers

some round beacon towers

Any questions, just drop a line.