不丹

 admin   2019-09-16 03:36   2,321 人阅读  0 条评论
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Meet the smoking-free, carbon-negative country that passes no law unless it improves citizens' well-being
遇见无烟、无碳排放的国度——不能改善国民福祉的法规在不丹是得不到批准的

翻译编辑:清波门 /南外英语系群

By Sandee LaMotte, CNN
Updated 1246 GMT (2046 HKT) September 13, 2019
CNN新闻 桑迪·拉莫特报道
更新于2019年9月13日格林尼治时间1246时(香港时间2046时)

CNN Vital Signs Bhutan Trailer 00:30
CNN 生命符号——不丹预告片 00:30

(CNN)On the eastern edge of the Himalayas, nestled between India and Tibet, lies the tiny nation of Druk Yul, better known as Bhutan. In Bhutanese, the name means "Land of the Thunder Dragon," a nod to the violent storms that pound the rugged mountain peaks and flood the lush valleys.

(CNN)位于喜马拉雅山脉的东部边缘,坐落在印度和西藏之间,有一个叫做不丹的小国。在不丹语中,这个名字的意思是“雷龙之地”,意指猛烈的暴风雨袭击崎岖的山峰,淹没繁茂的山谷。

Bhutan is known as "the last Shangri-La" -- a remote Himalayan nation, rich in natural beauty and Buddhist culture, where national happiness is prioritized over economic growth.
不丹被称为“最后的香格里拉”——一个偏远的喜马拉雅国家,拥有丰富的自然美景和佛教文化,国民经济增长让位于国民的幸福。

Fiercely proud and protective of its traditions, Bhutan has been closed to outside influences for centuries. The nation only opened its doors to tourism in the 1970s and has decided to take a unique approach to westernization, creating a concept known as the "Gross National Happiness Index."

Don't be fooled by the name. This is not just a measure of how much people smile and laugh. It's a holistic approach to sustainable development that gives as much weight to human flourishing as it does wealth.

"We in Bhutan are very unique; our democracy is very, very unique ... in the sense we all are grounded very strongly by our national values," said Bhutan Prime Minister Dr. Lotay Tshering, who took office in November 2018. "We do not put personal interest ahead of national interest.

出于强烈地骄傲和保护它的传统,几个世纪以来,不丹一直对外界的影响闭关锁国。此国在20世纪70年代才对旅游业开放,并决定采取独特的西方化方式,创造了一个被称为“国民幸福总值”的概念。

不要被这个名字所迷惑。这不仅仅是衡量人们微笑和大笑的程度。这是一种全面的可持续发展方法,既重视人类繁荣,也重视财富。

“我们不丹人非常独特;我们的民主是非常、非常独特的……从某种意义上说,我们都以我们国家的价值观为基础。”“我们不会把个人利益置于国家利益之上。

Bhutan Prime Minister Dr. Lotay Tshering in his office.
不丹总理洛泰·特谢林在他的办公室里。

"When we say Gross National Happiness, it is not the celebrative 'Ha ha -- Ho ho' kind of happiness that we look for in life," Lotay explained. "It only means contentment, control of your mind, control of wants in your life. Don't be jealous with others, be happy with what you have, be compassionate, be a society where you can be more than happy to share.

"Our king rightly calls Gross National Happiness as development with values," Lotay continues. "If the policy does not have a good amount of happiness index, if the policy is not every environment friendly, if the policy will not be able to ensure that it will result in the well-being of Bhutanese, that policy will never be approved in the country."

洛泰解释说:“我们所说的国民幸福总值,并不是我们在生活中所追求的那种为庆祝用的‘哈哈哈哈’。”“它只意味着满足,控制你的思想,控制你生活中的欲望。不要嫉妒别人,对你所拥有的感到快乐,要有同情心,成为一个你可以非常乐意分享的社会。

“我们的国王正确地把国民幸福总值称为有价值的发展,”洛泰继续说道。“如果这项政策没有很好的幸福指数,如果这项政策不是对所有环境都友好,如果这项政策不能确保会给不丹人带来幸福,那么这项政策就永远不会在不丹得到批准。”

Gross National Happiness   国民幸福指数

The Centre for Bhutan and GNH Studies is responsible for administering Bhutan's Gross National Happiness surveys. They ask questions such as "How happy did you feel yesterday?" and "How often do you practice meditation?"

They measure nine key areas of happiness every five years -- psychological well-being, health, education, good governance, ecology, time use, community vitality, culture and living standards. Two surveys have been conducted so far, in 2010 and 2015, with another one due next year.

不丹和GNH研究中心负责管理不丹的国民幸福总值调查。他们会问一些问题,比如“你昨天有多开心?”“你多久冥想一次?”

他们每5年测量9个关键的幸福领域——心理健康、健康、教育、良好治理、生态、时间利用、社区活力、文化和生活水平。到目前为止,已经在2010年和2015年进行了两项调查,明年还将进行另一项调查。

The house of a working farm sits in a valley nestled in the mountains near the eastern Bhutanese town of Paro. 坐落在不丹东部城镇Paro附近山谷里的农场的房子。


The 2015 survey sampled more than 7,000 Bhutanese from across the country. It yielded some interesting results.

"The harder components like living standard, health, access to health or access to education and so on, they're improving in Bhutan," said Tshoki Zangmo, a researcher at the Centre.

"But the softer components like psychological well-being or the trust indicator that we have in our community vitality domain, those were deteriorating," she added. "The trust indicator within urban areas in the country, they were deteriorating."

That's right. Bhutan is not the happiest country in the world. It actually ranks 95th out of 156 countries in the 2019 World Happiness Report. Much of that has to do with the nation's poverty, and the challenges of bringing economic and social equity to a predominately agricultural society.

2015年的调查抽样了来自全国各地的7000多名不丹人。它产生了一些有趣的结果。

该中心的研究员Tshoki Zangmo说:“在不丹,生活水平、健康、获得健康或受教育等较硬的组合的正在改善。”

她补充说:“但心理健康或社区活力领域的信任指标等较软的组合正在恶化。”“该国的城市地区的信任指标正在恶化。”

这是正确的。不丹不是世界上最幸福的国家。在2019年的《世界幸福报告》中,它在156个国家中排名第95位。这在很大程度上与该国的贫困,以及给一个以农业为主的社会所带来经济和社会公平的挑战有关。

Much of the rural population relies on subsistence farming in a high-mountain environment that is vulnerable to climate change. Rugged terrain, frequent floods and landslides hinder development; urban-rural connectivity is poor. Television was only introduced in 1999 and there are still no traffic lights in the capital city.

"There's another misunderstanding ... that Bhutan has claimed that we're the happiest country," said Tshoki. "I don't think we're the happiest country.

"But what sets Bhutan apart from the other countries is that our vision is clear," she added. "Our vision is to reach a state where societies have all the enabling conditions intact, not only the economic aspects but the other aspects as well, such as the environment, the community, having access to health and education and so on."

大部分农村人口在易受气候变化影响的高山环境中依赖于自给自足的农业。地势险峻,洪涝灾害频发,山体滑坡阻碍发展;城乡互联互通水平较低。电视是1999年才引进的,现在首都仍然没有红绿灯。

“还有另一个误解……不丹声称我们是最幸福的国家。”“我不认为我们是最幸福的国家。

她说:“但是,使不丹有别于其他国家的是,我们的愿景是明确的。”“我们的愿景是达到这样一种状态:社会拥有完整的所有有利条件,不仅包括经济方面,还包括其他方面,比如环境、社区、医疗和教育等。”

Dr. Prime Minister

One only needs to follow 50-year-old Lotay to see the Bhutanese way in action. He exercises daily, but one day is special. Every Thursday he steadily pedals up a steep hill outside Thimphu, Bhutan's capital city.

His goal is the 169-foot-tall Buddha Dordenma statue, one of the largest in the world. His mission is two-fold: exercise to strengthen his body, and prayer and meditation to strengthen his mind.

总理博士

只要跟随50岁的洛泰,就能看到不丹人的生活方式。他每天都锻炼,但有一天是特别的。每周四,他都会稳步踩着脚踏车爬上不丹首都廷布郊外的一座陡峭的小山。

他的目标是169英尺高的佛像,是世界上最大的佛像之一。他的使命是双重的:锻炼身体来强壮身体,祈祷和冥想来强壮大脑。

Prime Minister Dr. Lotay Tshering prays outside of Buddha Dordenma.
泰国总理洛泰·特谢林博士在佛殿外祈祷。

"When we say stronger, it just does not mean the muscle strength," Lotay says. "It means the mental strength, the strength of your neurons. So those are the ingredients to help your neurons to be very strong."

After his bike ride, the Prime Minister makes his way to the hospital for rounds. As a urologist and surgeon for more than 20 years, being a doctor is an integral part of what makes him happy. Therefore, he makes time on Thursdays and Saturdays to pursue his passion, which just happens to reflect his values.

洛泰说:“当我们说更强壮时,这并不意味着肌肉的力量。“它意味着精神力量,你的神经细胞的力量。所以这些都是帮助你的神经细胞变得非常强壮的成分。”

骑完自行车后,首相前往医院查房。作为一名20多年的泌尿科医生和外科医生,成为一名医生是他快乐的一个组成部分。因此,他在周四和周六抽出时间去追求自己的激情,这恰好反映了他的价值观。

Bhutan's Prime Minister as a boy on his family farm.
不丹总理还是个男孩时就在他家的农场上工作。

"Since I come from a traditional family, I always thought we should help others," Lotay says. "I thought being religious is the way forward, so on that note I really wanted to be a monk. My mother said why not be a doctor so that you can be really of help to the needy ones and so ... I decided to be a doctor."

As he makes his hospital rounds with residents and interns, Lotay tries to instill the same values he has practiced, values he says he tries to bring to how he approaches two of Bhutan's top goals: universal healthcare and education.

"Health and education are the most powerful social levelers," the Prime Minister says. "So based on that, we have free health and free education in our country. While it is free, it is not easily accessible, easily available for everyone that needs the service.

“因为我来自一个传统的家庭,我一直认为我们应该帮助别人,”洛泰说。“我认为信仰宗教是一种前进的方式,所以从那一刻起,我真的想成为一名僧侣。我妈妈说为什么不做一名医生,这样你就可以真正帮助那些需要帮助的人,所以……我决定当一名医生。”

洛泰在医院与住院医生和实习生交谈时,试图灌输他所践行的价值观。他说,他试图将这些价值观融入不丹的两个最高目标:全民医疗和教育。

“健康和教育是最有力的社会平等派,”首相说。“基于此,我们的国家有免费的医疗和教育。虽然它是免费的,但它不容易访问,对每个需要该服务的人都很容易。

Tshering visits with a patient on hospital rounds.
策林到医院巡视病人。

"I thought we could improve the accessibility of health care services to especially the needy ones, those who are based in the villages," he said, adding that "this pair of hands can only do so much. A surgical blade can only operate a patient at a time.

"I joined politics to see mainly if I can bring in some policy changes," he added, "so that with the stroke of my surgical blade, I treat one patient. With the stroke of a pen I can treat the whole nation."

他说:“我认为我们可以改善卫生保健服务的可及性,特别是那些生活在农村的贫困人口”。他说。“一双手只能做这么多。一把手术刀只能一次给一个病人动手术 “,他补充道。

我加入政界主要是想看看我是否能带来一些政策上的改变,”他补充说,”“这样,我只需动动手术刀,就能治疗一名病人。用笔一划,我就可以对待全国人民。”

Bhutan's future

The country may not rank highest in happiness, yet, but it has made major gains. Thousand of kilometers of roads have been constructed and phone lines installed. Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity accounts for the largest share of its economy.

不丹的未来

这个国家的幸福指数或许还不是最高的,但它已经取得了重大进展。数千公里的公路和电话线路已经建成。顺流而下的水力发电在其经济中占有最大的份额。

Water flows through tunnels at the site of the Punatsangchhu hydro-electric power project in Wangdue, Bhutan.
不丹旺杜的Punatsangchhu水力发电项目现场,水流通过隧道。

The World Bank calls Bhutan a developmental success story, with decreasing levels of extreme poverty and improvements in gender equality, as well as a stable political and economic environment.

"Just over the last three to four decades our life expectancy at birth has increased from near 50 to over 70," said Lotay. "With modernization, with decent access to good health care, more nutritious food and health awareness being better day by day, so many Bhutanese now live longer."

世界银行称不丹是一个发展成功的故事,极端贫困人口减少,性别平等得到改善,政治和经济环境稳定。

洛泰说:“在过去三、四十年里,我们出生时的预期寿命从将近50岁增加到70多岁。“随着现代化、良好的医疗保健、更有营养的食物和健康意识的日益增强,许多不丹人现在活得更长了。”

Bhutan places a tight control on tourism, including visits to the Tiger's Nest, a sacred Buddhist site on a cliffside.
不丹严格控制旅游业,包括参观悬崖边的佛教圣地虎穴。

Due to the country's natural beauty and native culture, ecotourism is huge. To manage it within the country's Gross National Happiness mandate, Bhutan imposes an ecotourism tax of $250 a day per person, which they use to offset the environmental impact of thousands of visitors. It's been so successful that Bhutan says it's not only carbon-neutral, it's carbon-negative.

由于该国的自然美景和本土文化,生态旅游是巨大的。为了在国民幸福总值的授权范围内进行管理,不丹征收每人每天250美元的生态旅游税,用来抵消成千上万游客对环境的影响。这一项目非常成功,不丹称它不仅是碳中和的,而且是负碳的。

The country has long partnered with the World Wildlife Fund to protect native wildlife in numerous parks. Plastic bags have been banned since 1999. Tobacco has been banned since 2005, making Bhutan the world's first smoke-free nation. The Bhutanese constitution mandates that at least 60% of the country remain under forest cover. Right now, said Lotay, they are at 70%.

该国长期以来一直与世界野生动物基金会合作,在许多公园保护当地野生动物。自1999年以来,塑料袋就被禁止使用。自2005年以来,不丹一直禁止吸烟,使不丹成为世界上第一个无烟国家。不丹宪法规定,该国至少60%的土地仍处于森林覆盖之下。洛泰说,目前这一比例为70%。

A monastery on a hilltop in the Haa valley, Bhutan. The valley was off-limits to tourists until 2002.
不丹哈阿山谷山顶上的一座修道院。直到2002年,这个山谷才对游客开放。

Despite the need for economic growth, the Prime Minister is confident those priorities will not change for the Bhutanese people.

"When we know that monetary wealth and material wealth will not translate to what you actually want in your life ... peace of mind and happiness ... then why should we target that as our main objective?

"We have to think about the next generations to come," he added. "So, these are the values of Gross National Happiness that we practice. That's why economically we may not be doing very well because all those checks and balances will ensure that whatever we initiate will be sustainable, will be for generations to come."

CNN's Samantha Bresnahan and Sugam Pokharel contributed to this report.

尽管有经济增长的需要,总理相信这些优先事项不会为了不丹人民而改变。

“当我们知道金钱财富和物质财富不会转化为你真正想要的生活时……内心的平静和幸福……那我们为什么要把它作为我们的主要目标呢?

“我们必须为下一代考虑,”他补充道。“所以,这就是我们实践的国民幸福总值的价值。这就是为什么我们在经济上可能做得不是很好,因为所有这些制衡将确保我们发起的任何行动都将是可持续的,并将代代相传。”

CNN记者Samantha Bresnahan和Sugam Pokharel报道。

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