西班牙阿尔罕布拉宫旅游英语

 admin   2021-10-05 21:38   113 人阅读  0 条评论
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The Alhambra 阿尔罕布拉,意为“红色之城”,它建于13世纪上半叶,是西班牙伊斯兰教最后的军事要地和历代国王的居城,也是西班牙宗教历史变迁的舞台,因而可以说是集伊斯兰文明之大成于一身的经典之作,1984年被选入联合国教科文组织世界文化遗产名录之中。

Granada 格拉纳达

格拉纳达(Granada) 是西班牙安达卢西亚自治区(The Autonomous Community of Andalusia) 内格拉纳达省的省会(the capital city of the province of Granada),位于内华达山山麓 (at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains),达若河和赫尼尔河汇合处(at the confluence of two major rivers, the Darro and the Genil),海拔738米(at an average elevation of 738 m above sea level)。

从西班牙首都马德里(Madrid)到 Granada 格拉纳达 交通便利

从13世纪到15世纪,这座神秘的城市一直是摩尔王国(Moorish kingdom) 的首都。对于来自北非的摩尔人(the Moors) 来说,格拉纳达郁郁葱葱的环境就像人间天堂。纳斯里德王朝(The Nasrid Dynasty)统治的辉煌与世界上任何地方都不同。

The Alhambra 阿罕布拉宫的山顶堡垒是一个有绿色植物、玫瑰园和无尽喷泉的天堂。经过几个世纪的繁荣,格拉纳达成为1491年天主教君主占领这座城市时摩尔人在西班牙的最后一个堡垒。虽然现在主要是基督徒,但格拉纳达继承了丰富的伊斯兰、犹太和吉普赛的影响。文艺复兴时期的天主教大教堂曾经是一座清真寺。

Granada is a city rich with history and spectacular architecture, offering a mix of cultures and influences dating back to the Romans and the Moors. Here, culture, art, and architecture from North Africa and Europe collide, creating one of Spain’s most interesting and unique cities.

I loved my time in Granada. There are countless museums, monuments, and statues worth seeing and exploring, which are perfect for the budget-minded traveler. And with its perfect weather and incredible food scene, it should come as no surprise that Granada is one of my favorite cities in Spain. (nomadicmatt.com)

The Moors 摩尔人

The Moors ,是指阿拉伯和北非穆斯林,西方人称之为“摩尔人”。这个词在欧洲被广泛使用,带有一些贬义,一般笼统指的是穆斯林,尤其是那些居住在西班牙或北非的阿拉伯或柏柏尔后裔殖民时期的穆斯林。

711年,倭马亚王朝(Umayyad Caliphate)时期,主要由北非的摩尔人( The Moors )组成的军队征服了西班牙。伊比利亚半岛后来在古典阿拉伯语中被称为al-Andalus (安达卢斯 ),在其鼎盛时期包括了大部分的塞普提马尼亚(Septimania:法国东南部历史地区名)和现在的西班牙和葡萄牙。

If the term “Moor” seems familiar but confusing, there’s a reason: Though the term can be found throughout literature, art, and history books, it does not actually describe a specific ethnicity or race. Instead, the concept of Moors has been used to describe alternatively the reign of Muslims in Spain, Europeans of African descent, and others for centuries.

Derived from the Latin word “Maurus,” the term was originally used to describe Berbers and other people from the ancient Roman province of Mauretania in what is now North Africa. Over time, it was increasingly applied to Muslims living in Europe. Beginning in the Renaissance, “Moor” and “blackamoor” were also used to describe any person with dark skin. (nationalgeographic.com)

The Alhambra 阿尔罕布拉宫 /ælˈhæmbrə/

The Alhambra 、 La Alhambra 阿尔罕布拉,意为“红色之城”,它建于13世纪上半叶,是西班牙伊斯兰教最后的军事要地和历代国王的居城,也是西班牙宗教历史变迁的舞台,因而可以说是集伊斯兰文明之大成于一身的经典之作,1984年被选入联合国教科文组织世界文化遗产名录之中。

空中看格拉纳达和阿尔罕布拉外观( Image Credit:.spain.info)

阿尔罕布拉宫主要由要塞部分的阿卡萨巴城堡、纳塞瑞斯皇宫及作为夏宫的赫内拉里菲宫组成,其中的狮子庭院、爱神木中庭等都也是不容错过的景点。

另外,登上最西端的瞭望塔,可以俯瞰以大教堂为中心的格拉纳达城市全貌。 购票贴士阿尔罕布拉宫对每天参观的人数有所限制,可以至少提前两个月在官网上购买门票。

阿尔罕布拉外观( IMage Credit: .telegraph.co.uk)

它不只是摩尔人统治格拉纳达800年的一个杰作,更可能是全世界穆斯林建筑艺术发挥得最完美无缺的一个范本。从阿尔拜辛摩尔人居住区朝南偏东方向看,阿兰布拉宫的红色城堡塔楼巍然屹立,背景则映衬着内华达山脉的雪峰。

皇宫宫殿一部分 (Image Credit:.spain.info)
宫殿的使者大厅 (Image Credit:spain.info)
阿尔罕布拉宫拱形廊柱 (Image Credit:spain.info)

当我们察看了阿兰布拉宫作为要塞、城堡和园林庭院的状态后,再回到其本元,欣赏其作为宫殿的主体时,就会深深地感觉到,一句“美妙绝伦”远远不足以表达对这个精致的宫殿的赞美。远看,其依山而就,筑岩起屋,呈凌空欲飞之势;近观,它殿宇亭阁逐步推进,起承转合,极有章法。进入宫殿内细细地观察,造型结构、彼此照应,动静相谐,鳞次栉比。

狮子喷泉 (Image Credit:spain.info)

It was converted into a royal palace in 1333 by Yusuf I, Sultan of Granada. After the conclusion of the Christian Reconquista in 1492, the site became the Royal Court of Ferdinand and Isabella (where Christopher Columbus received royal endorsement for his expedition), and the palaces were partially altered in the Renaissance style. In 1526, Charles I of Spain commissioned a new Renaissance palace better befitting the Holy Roman Emperor in the revolutionary Mannerist style influenced by humanist philosophy in direct juxtaposition with the Nasrid Andalusian architecture, but it was ultimately never completed due to Morisco rebellions in Granada. (Image Credit:spain.info)

狮子院子 (Image Credit:spain.info)

The Alhambra (/ælˈhæmbrə/ , lit. 'The Red One', is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain. It was originally constructed as a small fortress in 889 CE on the remains of ancient Roman fortifications, and then largely ignored until its ruins were renovated and rebuilt in the mid-13th century by the Arab Nasrid emir Mohammed ben Al-Ahmar of the Emirate of Granada, who built its current palace and walls. (en.wikipedia.org)


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