中国核电

 admin   2019-09-15 14:11   1,663 人阅读  0 条评论
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China's gambling on a nuclear future, but is it destined to lose?中国在赌核电的未来,但注定会输吗?

翻译编辑:清波门 /南外英语系群

By James Griffiths, CNN
Updated 0026 GMT (0826 HKT) September 14, 2019

CNN 詹姆斯·格里菲思报道

更新于2019年9月14日格林尼治时间0026时(香港时间0826时)

Hong Kong (CNN Business) Panicked shoppers thronged supermarket aisles, grabbing bags of salt by the armful. They queued six deep outside wholesalers. Most went home with only one or two bags; the lucky ones managed to snag a five-year supply before stocks ran out.

This was China in the days after Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster, when people in cities up and down the country's highly populated east coast bought huge quantities of iodized salt in the misguided belief it would protect them from radiation.

香港(CNN商业)惊慌失措的购物者挤满了超市的过道,一把一把地拿着盐袋。他们在六家批发商外面排起了长队。大多数人回家时只带了一两件行李;幸运的人设法在库存耗尽之前获得了5年的供应。

这就是日本福岛核灾难发生后的中国。当时,人口众多的东海岸城市的居民购买了大量碘盐,错误地认为碘盐可以保护他们免受辐射。

The 2011 disaster — the worst nuclear accident in 25 years — threw a major wrench into China's ambitious nuclear plans. It sent authorities scrambling to reassure people that they were not at risk of a similar catastrophe and sparked an immediate moratorium on new power plants.

That ban was lifted this year. Now, China is gradually ramping up construction again.

2011年的这场灾难是25年来最严重的核事故,严重阻碍了中国雄心勃勃的核计划。这使得当局匆忙向民众保证,他们不会面临类似灾难的风险,并立即下令暂停新建电(核)电厂。

这一禁令于今年解除。现在,中国又在逐步加大建设力度。

Sources:World Nuclear Association,Maps4news.com/CHERE
来源:世界核协会,Maps4news.com/CHERE

备注:红色代表中国正在运营的核电站  蓝色代表建设中的核电站 黄色代表规划中的核电站

With around a dozen nuclear power plants in the works, China will overtake France as the number two producer of atomic energy worldwide within two years. If it continues with its aggressive plan, it will surpass the United States to become number one by 2030.

中国正在建设大约12座核电站,两年内将超过法国,成为全球第二大原子能生产国。如果中国继续推行其激进的计划,到2030年,中国将超过美国成为世界第一。

China is the world's largest consumer of energy, thanks mainly to industrial activity. This is only going to increase, with households expected to use nearly twice as much energy by 2040, according to the International Energy Agency.

At present, some 60% of that energy consumption is powered by coal. But China is spending heavily on natural gas and nuclear power, as well as renewables — the country accounted for almost half of all investments in the latter globally in 2017.

中国是世界上最大的能源消费国,这主要得益于工业活动。根据国际能源署(International energy Agency)的数据,这一数字只会增加,到2040年,家庭的能源使用量预计将是现在的近两倍。

目前,大约60%的能源消耗是由煤炭提供的。但中国在天然气、核能以及可再生能源上投入巨大——2017年,中国对可再生能源的投资几乎占全球总投资的一半。

Beijing's outward enthusiasm for nuclear energy masks a multitude of challenges facing China's atomic plans.

Surveys and protests against proposed nuclear plants suggest ordinary Chinese are a lot less enthusiastic about nuclear power than their leaders are. The potential ramifications of a nuclear disaster in the world's most populated country are stark, to say nothing of economic or environmental fallout.

And while China's nuclear industry has a strong safety record — and domestic regulations have tightened since Fukushima — some fear corruption and supply line issues could undercut these efforts.

中国政府表面上对核能的热情,掩饰了中国核电计划面临的诸多挑战。

针对拟议中的核电站的调查和抗议表明,普通中国人对核电的热情远不如他们的领导人。世界上人口最多的国家发生核灾难的潜在后果是显而易见的,更不用说经济或环境后果了。

尽管中国核工业有着良好的安全记录——自福岛核事故以来,国内监管也有所收紧——但一些人担心,腐败和供应线问题可能会削弱这些努力。

Nuclear is also not the attractive clean energy solution it once was. In the years following the Fukushima disaster, renewable energy such as solar and wind have plummeted in price thanks in part to heavy Chinese investment, while new safety standards have driven up the cost of nuclear power.

"For a long time, China was basically subsidizing the (nuclear) industry, and now they're trying to put it on a market footing," said Miles Pomper, a Washington-based expert in nuclear energy at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies.

"When you do that, oftentimes it doesn't meet the market test, especially competing with wind and other kinds of power."China's National Energy Administration and Atomic Energy Authority did not respond to requests for comment for this report.

核能也不再是过去那种吸引人的清洁能源解决方案。福岛核灾难发生后的几年里,太阳能和风能等可再生能源的价格大幅下跌,部分原因是中国大举投资,而新的安全标准推高了核电成本。

詹姆斯·马丁防扩散研究中心驻华盛顿的核能专家迈尔斯·庞珀说:“长期以来,中国基本上是在补贴核工业,现在他们正试图把它建立在市场基础上。”

“当你这样做的时候,它往往不符合市场测试,尤其是与风能和其他能源竞争。”
中国国家能源局和原子能机构没有回应记者的置评请求。

Nuclear panic
The Fukushima disaster was a shocking wake-up call to all countries with coastal nuclear plants. It raised concerns that other plants could be vulnerable to tsunamis and other extreme weather.

On March 11, 2011, a 9.0-magnitude earthquake rocked Japan. It permanently moved the country's main island, destroyed buildings, and raised a tsunami up to 40 meters (131 feet) high, which crashed into the country's east coast.

核恐慌

福岛核灾难给所有拥有沿海核电站的国家敲响了令人震惊的警钟。这引发了人们对其他核电站可能易受海啸和其他极端天气影响的担忧。

2011年3月11日,日本发生9.0级地震。地震永久地移动了该国的主要岛屿,摧毁了建筑物,并引发了高达40米(131英尺)的海啸,最终袭击了该国的东海岸。

Within 50 minutes of the initial earthquake, the first wave crested the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant's 10-meter (33 foot) sea wall. The plant's emergency power generators were soon flooded, knocking vital cooling systems offline and causing reactor fuel rods to begin to meltdown and leak deadly radiation into the surrounding area.

It was the worst nuclear disaster since the 1986 Chernobyl meltdown. More than 300,000 people were evacuated from the area around the Fukushima plant, and many will never be able to go home. Clean up operations, estimated to cost upwards of $50 billion, are still ongoing.

地震发生后不到50分钟,第一波巨浪就冲上了福岛第一核电站10米(33英尺)高的防波堤。核电站的应急发电机很快被淹没,导致重要的冷却系统瘫痪,导致反应堆燃料棒开始熔化,致命的辐射泄漏到周围地区。

这是自1986年切尔诺贝利核电站熔毁以来最严重的核灾难。超过30万人从福岛核电站周围地区撤离,许多人将永远无法回家。清理工作仍在进行中,估计耗资超过500亿美元。

The disaster broke Japan's longstanding commitment to nuclear power and prompted a four-year moratorium on the country's atomic energy production.

The sudden aversion to nuclear energy reached China, where the State Council immediately suspended approval of nuclear power projects and ordered a comprehensive safety inspection of all existing facilities.

New regulations were passed, including the 2020 Vision for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention, which set safety standards and inspection goals, as well as a Nuclear Safety Act that went into effect last year.

这场灾难打破了日本长期以来对核能的承诺,促使日本暂停了4年的核能生产。

中国突然对核能产生反感,国务院立即暂停审批核电项目,并下令对所有现有设施进行全面安全检查。新规获得通过,包括制定安全标准和检查目标的《2020核安全与辐射性污染防治法愿景》(2020 Vision for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention)和去年生效的《核安全法》(Nuclear Safety Act)。

In particular, according to a report by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), new power supplies and water pumps were issued to all Chinese nuclear plants to protect against the flooding and power loss suffered at Fukushima.

New emergency response protocols were introduced, including the need for emergency response drills.The effect of the disaster on China's domestic nuclear industry has been profound. Some semi-official projections that China might have more than 400 nuclear plants by 2050 "have been cut in half," according to Mark Hibbs, an analyst with the Carnegie Endowment and co-author of "Why Fukushima Was Preventable.

"The failure of Japan, "one of the world's most technologically equipped and experienced" countries as regards nuclear power, raised serious questions as to whether China too was vulnerable to a serious accident, Hibbs wrote in a report on the country's nuclear industry last year.

特别是根据国际原子能机构(IAEA)的一份报告,中国向所有核电站提供了新的电力供应和水泵,以防止福岛核电站遭受洪水和电力损失引起的灾难出现。出台了新的应急预案,包括应急演练的必要性。

这场灾难对中国国内核工业的影响是深远的。卡内基国际和平基金会(Carnegie Endowment)分析师、《福岛事故为何可以避免》(Why Fukushima Was可控)一书的合著者马克•希布斯(Mark Hibbs)表示,一些半官方预测称,到2050年,中国可能拥有400多座核电站,但“这一预测已被削减了一半”。

去年,Hibbs在一份关于日本核工业的报告中写道,日本是“世界上技术装备和经验最丰富的”国家之一,它的失败引发了一个严重的问题,即中国是否也容易发生严重事故。

Japan: Fukushima's ghost towns 5 years after disaster 01:56
日本:灾难发生5年后的福岛鬼城 01:56

Safety fears 
Despite China's efforts to alleviate public concern after Fukushima with a moratorium and new safety checks, support for nuclear energy remains tepid at best and outright hostile at worst.

A government-supported survey in August 2017 found that "only 40% of the public supports the development of nuclear power in China," according to the Chinese Academy of Engineering. The Fukushima accident "has had the consequence that the public has become more sensitive to the possible development of nuclear energy projects, and is opposing such projects, especially near their homes."

安全担忧

尽管在福岛核事故发生后,中国通过暂停核电站建设和新的安全检查,努力缓解公众的担忧,但对核能的支持往好里说是不温不火,往坏里说是完全敌意。

根据中国工程院2017年8月的一项政府支持的调查,“只有40%的公众支持中国发展核电”。福岛核事故“造成的后果是,公众对核能项目的可能发展变得更加敏感,尤其反对在他们的住所附近兴建核电项目。”

Plans to build a nuclear waste processing plant in the eastern province of Jiangsu resulted in violent protests from locals and the project eventually being scrapped in August 2016, according to Chinese media.

The nuclear industry has long struggled to combat fears about safety, which many proponents of atomic energy say are overblown. They argue that famous incidents — Fukushima, Chernobyl and Three Mile Island — are outliers which do not reflect the overall situation.

The World Nuclear Association (WNA) argues that "in over 17,000 cumulative reactor-years of commercial nuclear power operation in 33 countries," only three major accidents have occurred.

据中国媒体报道,计划在东部省份江苏建造一座核废料处理厂的计划引发了当地居民的暴力抗议,该项目最终于2016年8月被取消。

长期以来,核工业一直在努力消除人们对安全的担忧。许多原子能支持者认为,这种担忧有些言过其实。他们争辩说,著名的事故——福岛、切尔诺贝利和三里岛(Three Mile Island)——是不反映整体情况的极端值。

世界核协会(WNA)争辩说,“在33个国家17000多个累积反应堆- - -多年的商业核能运行中,”只发生了三起重大事故。

"The evidence over six decades shows that nuclear power is a safe means of generating electricity," according to the WNA. "The risk of accidents in nuclear power plants is low and declining.

"The WNA estimates that around 11% of the world's electricity is generated by about 450 nuclear power reactors. Some 60 more reactors are under construction around the world.

 “60多年来的证据表明,核能是一种安全的发电方式,”世界核能协会称。“核电站发生事故的风险很低,而且还在下降。”

世界核能协会估计,全球约有11%的电力来自450个核反应堆。世界各地还有大约60座反应堆在建。

China, in particular, can boast that in three decades of operating nuclear plants, it has never experienced a major accident.

According to Xue Xiaogang, president of the China Institute of Atomic Energy, a government-backed research agency, safety levels in the country's nuclear power plants are now among the highest in the world."It is almost impossible that a Fukushima-style accident will happen in China," Xue told state-run broadcaster CGTN in May.

特别是中国,可以自豪地说,在其运营核电站的30年里,从未发生过重大事故。政府支持的研究机构中国原子能科学研究院(China Institute of Atomic Energy)院长薛晓刚(音)表示,中国核电站的安全水平目前位居世界前列。

“福岛式的事故几乎不可能在中国发生,”薛锋今年5月对中国国有电视台CGTN表示。

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