今日英语词汇: pulverize, spall, splinter, flake, exfoliate

 admin   2021-06-30 21:59   214 人阅读  0 条评论
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今日英语词汇选自日常用语,欧美报刊文章, 以及英语原文小说。每天坚持学习TB今日英语词汇,有助于阅读和理解当今欧美主流媒体的新闻时事报道和英语文学作品;增强日常英语交流能力。

今日英语词汇 Words & Phrases of the Day

上周四,美国佛罗里达州瑟夫赛德市(Surfside)一座面朝大西洋的12层公寓大楼(Champlain Towers East Building)凌晨突然部分“松饼式“ (pancaking)倒塌,目前造成至少18人死亡,147人下落不明 (unaccounted for)。

由于这次倒塌是楼层垂直叠加倒塌,即所谓的松饼式“ (pancaking)倒塌,被埋在废墟瓦砾里的受害者生还希望很渺茫。文字和视频媒体在报道这次在美国历史上罕见的坍塌事故时,记者多处选词强调描写这次“粉碎性”的坍塌。我留意了一下,并汇总以下有关“粉碎性”英文用词:

pulverize
verb [ T ] (UK usually pulverise) /ˈpʌl.və.raɪz/

英汉解释:
to press or crush something until it becomes powder or a soft mass
把(某物)压(或磨)成粉

原文举例:
Rescuers searching for a fifth day for survivors of a Florida condo building collapse used bucket brigades and heavy machinery Monday as they worked atop a precarious mound of pulverized concrete, twisted steel and the remnants of dozens of households. (globalnews.ca/June 28, 2021)

spall
verb & noun /spɔːl/

英汉解释:
break (ore, rock, stone, or concrete) into smaller pieces, especially in preparation for sorting.
把(矿石、岩石、石头或混凝土)打碎成小块。

原文举例:
The inspection report from Oct. 8, 2018, found "abundant" cracking and spalling of the columns, beams and walls in the garage under the tower that fell to the ground early Thursday, killing at least four people and leaving 159 others unaccounted for. (usatoday.com/)

splinter
verb [ I ]/ˈsplɪn.t̬ɚ/

英汉解释
to break into small, sharp pieces
裂成碎片

原文举例:
Authorities said their efforts were still a search-and-rescue operation, but no one has been found alive from the mounds of pulverized concrete, splintered lumber and twisted metal since hours after the collapse on Thursday. (ox40.com/June 30, 2021)

flake
verb and noun [ I ]/fleɪk/

英汉解释:
to break or divide (food) into thin pieces; to come off a surface in small, thin pieces
(成片地)剥落,脱落; 裂成碎片;

原文举例:
Steel expands as it rusts, putting pressure on the concrete and causing little bits to crumble and flake away. It's a process known as spalling — in severe cases, it's sometimes referred to as "concrete cancer." (eenews.net/June 29, 2021)

exfoliate
verb [ I or T ] /eksˈfoʊ.li.eɪt/ exfoliation (noun)

(of a material) come apart or be shed from a surface in scales or layers; cause (a surface) to shed material in scales or layers.
(指物质)从表面成鳞片或成层脱落或脱落

原文举例:
One of the questions hanging in the South Tower tragedy is why the 2018 inspection report, written by an engineer who discovered “serious structural damage,” was not immediately implemented. Morabito Consultants, who produced the report, also revealed “abundant cracks and exfoliation” and pointed out the need for “very expensive” repairs to protect against further deterioration. (floridanewstimes.com/June 30, 2021)

pancake
verb

英汉解释:
flatten or become flattened.
被压扁;松饼式坍塌

原文举例:
“This is a war zone,” said Marta Castro, a retiree who lives in a third-floor unit of Champlain Towers East, which was erected later than the other building, in the 1990s. She knew many of the residents who died or vanished in the sudden pancaking of Champlain Towers South, she said. (washingtonpost.com/June 29, 2021)

June 30, 2021


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