生活英语词汇: 季节 Season 和 气候 Climate

 admin   2021-09-23 23:07   192 人阅读  0 条评论
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Climatologist 与 Meteorologist

含义: Climatologist 气候学家; Meteorologist 气象学家。气象学(Meteorology)和气候学(climatology)是研究天气和大气的科学的分支。当你计划园艺或去海滩时,气象学家( Climatologist )会给你未来几天、一周甚至10天的天气预报。如果你想知道未来几年的冬天会是什么类型,气候学家( Climatologist )——他们研究过去的历史趋势,这可能有助于预测未来——会为你提供最好的答案。

举例: The need for meteorologists and climatologists is expected to grow 8 percent from 2018 to 2028, which is faster than the average for all occupations. Most of the job growth will likely be in private industry as technology continues to make weather forecasting more accurate. Businesses rely on atmospheric scientists to help them determine accurate delivery schedules based on the weather, including when they should expect to receive inventory and when they can ship buyers' purchases. (work.chron.com)

Meteorological Seasons 与 Astronomical Seasons

含义: Meteorological Seasons 气象季节; Astronomical Seasons 天文季节。气象季节( Meteorological Seasons )和天文季节( Astronomical Seasons )开始和结束的日期是不同的。简而言之,这是因为天文季节( Astronomical Seasons )是基于地球与太阳的位置来确定的,而气象季节( Meteorological Seasons )是基于每年的温度周期来确定的。

举例: You may have noticed that meteorologists and climatologists define seasons differently from “regular” or astronomical spring, summer, fall, and winter. So, why do meteorological and astronomical seasons begin and end on different dates? In short, it’s because the astronomical seasons are based on the position of Earth in relation to the sun, whereas the meteorological seasons are based on the annual temperature cycle. (ncei.noaa.gov)

solstice 与 equinox

含义:solstice 指夏至(Summer Solstice)或冬至(winter solstice); equinox 指昼夜平分时; 春分(spring equinox); 秋分(autumn equinox)。Solstice 和 Equinox 属于天文季节( Astronomical Seasons )。

举例:The two solstices happen in June (20 or 21) and December (21 or 22). These are the days when the Sun’s path in the sky is the farthest north or south from the Equator. A hemisphere’s winter solstice is the shortest day of the year and its summer solstice the year’s longest.

The equinoxes happen in March (about March 21) and September (about September 23). These are the days when the Sun is exactly above the Equator, which makes day and night of equal length.

Leap Year

含义:leap year 闰年。因为地球绕太阳公转一周需要365.24天,所以每四年需要多一天,这就形成了我们所知的闰年(Leap Year)。这也导致了夏至或冬至(solstices)和春分或秋分(equinoxes)的确切日期的变化。此外,地球绕太阳轨道的椭圆形状导致天文季节的长度在89到93天之间变化。季节长度和季节开始的这些变化将使我们很难对一年和下一年某个特定季节的气候统计数据进行一致的比较。就这样,气象季节(meteorological seasons)诞生了: winter, spring, summer and autumn。

举例:Because Earth actually travels around the sun in 365.24 days, an extra day is needed every fourth year, creating what we know as Leap Year. This also causes the exact date of the solstices and equinoxes to vary. Additionally, the elliptical shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun causes the lengths of the astronomical seasons to vary between 89 and 93 days. These variations in season length and season start would make it very difficult to consistently compare climatological statistics for a particular season from one year to the next. Thus, the meteorological seasons were born. (ncei.noaa.gov)

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