怀旧是当今美国文化中最强大的力量。迪斯尼是最大的怀旧营销者。

 admin   2019-11-14 10:57   1,324 人阅读  0 条评论
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翻译编辑:呆牛/南外英语系群

Nostalgia is the most powerful force in American culture right now. No one can sell you more of it than Disney.

怀旧是当今美国文化中最强大的力量。迪斯尼是最大的怀旧营销者。

By Josh Spiegel
November 14 at 6:58 AM China mainland Time
Josh Spiegel is a freelance film critic.
作者:乔希·斯皮格尔;中国大陆时间11月14日上午6:58
乔希·斯皮格尔是一位自由电影评论家。

Cathleen Taff, president of distribution, franchise management, business and audience insight for Walt Disney Studios, onstage at CinemaCon 2019 in Las Vegas on Tuesday. (Chris Pizzello/Chris Pizzello/Invision/AP)

周二,华特迪士尼电影公司负责发行、特许经营管理、商业和受众洞察力总裁 凯思琳·塔夫 在2019拉斯维加斯国际电影产业博览会台上。(克里斯·皮泽罗/克里斯·皮泽罗/英维辛/美联社)

原文2019年11月14日刊登于华盛顿邮报( The Washington Post)

The streaming wars were already heated, but a new combatant is entering the arena: the Walt Disney Company. Mickey Mouse may be a friendly corporate icon. But the new Disney Plus streaming service could have a decidedly unfriendly impact.

流媒体大战已经很激烈了,但一个新的战斗人员正在进入竞技场:华特迪斯尼公司。米老鼠也许是一个友好的公司偶像。但新的迪斯尼+流媒体服务可能会产生明显不友好影响。

Disney Plus, which rolls out this week in the United States, Canada and the Netherlands, may offer a number of new shows and films as hooks for subscribers. But even those offerings, which include a remake of the beloved animated classic “Lady and the Tramp” and a hotly anticipated Star Wars TV series, “The Mandalorian,” suggest why Disney Plus will stand out: The most powerful force in American culture right now is nostalgia, and no one can sell viewers more nostalgia than Disney.

本周将在美国、加拿大和荷兰推出的迪斯尼Plus流媒体服务,可能会提供一些新的节目和电影作为吸引用户的诱饵。但即便是这些产品,包括翻拍受人喜爱的经典动画片《女人与流浪汉》和备受期待的星球大战电视连续剧《曼达洛人》,也说明了为什么迪士尼Plus会脱颖而出:目前美国文化中最强大的力量是怀旧,没有人能比迪士尼更能向观众推销怀旧。

The result may be a comforting, reliable bundle for consumers. But Disney’s very dominion over old classics may make it more difficult for artists to create new ones.

其结果可能让消费者感到舒适和可信赖。但迪士尼对老经典的掌控,可能会让艺术家更难创作出新的经典。

The Walt Disney Co. has defined itself over the past 15 years by its acquisitions of large swaths of America’s pop cultural history. After he became CEO in 2005, Robert Iger engineered the purchase of Pixar Animation Studios. In 2009, Disney bought Marvel Entertainment, followed by Lucasfilm in 2012. And Disney’s biggest takeover began in the fall of 2017, when the company announced plans to gobble up 21st Century Fox. This concentration of cultural capital has given Disney enormous influence. And whatever original content it has to offer, the real pitch for Disney Plus is that the service offers a streaming version of your childhood, whether your youth is defined by one of the companies Disney snapped up, or even 30 seasons of “The Simpsons.”

在过去的15年里,华特·迪斯尼公司通过收购美国流行文化历史大片来定义自己。 2005年担任首席执行官后,罗伯特•伊格策划收购皮克斯动画工作室。2009年,迪斯尼收购了惊奇娱乐,2012年又收购了卢卡斯电影公司。迪士尼最大的收购始于2017年秋季,当时该公司宣布了吞并21世纪福克斯的计划。这种文化资本的集中给了迪斯尼巨大的影响力。不管它提供的是什么原创内容,迪斯尼Plus的真正卖点是它提供了你童年的流媒体版本,无论你的青春是由一个由迪斯尼收购的公司来定义的,或甚至是30季的《辛普森一家》。

Other Hollywood conglomerates such as NBCUniversal (with its streaming service Peacock) and WarnerMedia (with its streaming service HBO Max) are attempting to follow in the paw prints of Mickey Mouse and friends. And while each of these services promises new films and TV shows centered around already-familiar intellectual property, from “Game of Thrones” to “Battlestar Galactica,” none of them can match Walt Disney’s unshakable foothold in Americans’ collective memories.

其他好莱坞企业集团,如NBC环球流媒体服务“孔雀”和华纳媒体(拥有流媒体服务HBO Max)正试图效仿米老鼠和朋友的掌纹。虽然每一项服务都承诺推出以已经熟悉的知识产权为中心的新电影和电视节目,从《权力的游戏》到《战舰卡拉狄加》,但没有一项能与华特·迪斯尼在美国人集体记忆中不可动摇的立足点相媲美。

Disney Plus will be the only digital home for the “Star Wars” franchise, for holiday perennials such as “Home Alone,” for animated fare including “The Lion King,” Disney Junior TV shows like “Mickey Mouse Clubhouse,” and more. Though Peacock and HBO Max have some older fare, Disney Plus has seemingly everything. If you have kids, subscribing to Disney Plus will be an inevitability. Even if you don’t, the service will have something for you.

迪斯尼Plus将是“星球大战”系列的唯一数字家庭,包括节假日常年系列如“独自在家”,“狮子王”,“米老鼠俱乐部”等迪斯尼青少年电视节目的数字家庭。虽然孔雀和HBO麦克斯有一些老的节目,迪斯尼加似乎有一切。如果你有孩子,订阅迪斯尼Plus将是必然的。即使你不这样做,服务部门也会为你准备一些东西。

In the interim, that’s the good news for consumers who want to bask in the familiar. But even in the early days of the service, the limits of this ouroboros of nostalgia are clear. Alongside that “Lady and the Tramp” remake, Disney Plus is reviving the 2006 TV-movie “High School Musical” as a new TV show called “High School Musical: The Musical: The Series”; this is a case of millennial-era nostalgia for a project most notable for kickstarting its leads’ careers, not for being a genuine classic. The nostalgia isn’t even subtext: One of the service’s new reality shows, “Encore!”, is all about adults returning to their high schools to perform in encore presentations of stage shows they appeared in as teenagers.

在此期间,这对于那些想沉浸耳熟能详经典的消费者来说是个好消息。但即使在流服务初期,这种怀旧的反复循环的局限性也是显而易见的。除了“Lady and the Tramp”的翻拍,迪斯尼Plus将重新上演2006年的电视电影《高中音乐剧》, 该剧作为一个新的电视剧“高中音乐剧”的新电视节目重新推出;这是一个千禧年时代怀旧的案例,这个项目最显著的特点是开创了它的领导生涯,而不是真正的经典。怀旧甚至不是潜台词:该服务的一个新的真人秀节目,“安可!这部电影讲述的是成年人重返高中,在他们十几岁时出现的舞台剧的重演中表演的故事。

This strategy is both cynical and largely successful. Both “Aladdin” and “The Lion King” were massive, billion-dollar-grossing successes worldwide this year. If nostalgia turns into infinite piles of money, why would Disney ever make anything new? And by sending such a powerful signal about what it considers viable, Disney risks shrinking the ambitions of a generation of filmmakers, telling them that the only direction to look if they want to stay employed is toward the past.

这一策略既愤世嫉俗又基本成功。“阿拉丁”和“狮子王”今年都在全球范围内取得了巨大的、十亿美元的投资成功。如果怀旧变成了无限的财富,为什么迪斯尼会创造新的东西?迪斯尼发出了一个强大的信号,表明它认为可行的东西,它有可能缩小一代电影制作人的雄心,告诉他们,如果他们想继续就业,唯一的方向就是走向过去。

By this standard, a genuinely creative remake, like the 2016 redo of “Pete’s Dragon” by director and co-writer David Lowery starts to look daring, if not enduring. But for all Lowery used the title and premise of a boy in the woods with a dragon for a best friend to tell a whole new story about friendship, loss and makeshift families, it’s hard not to feel like this new normal is a little depressing. It makes business sense for Disney to create new versions of what you fell in love with before. But what happens if familiarity starts to breed contempt?

按照这个标准,一部真正有创意的翻拍,比如导演兼联合编剧大卫·洛厄里(David Lowery)在2016年重拍的《彼得的龙》(Pete's Dragon)开始显得大胆,即使不持久。但对于所有洛厄里使用的标题和前提,一个男孩在森林里与一条龙为一个最好的朋友讲述了一个全新的故事,关于友谊,损失和临时家庭,很难不觉得这是一个有点压抑的新常态。迪斯尼创造出你以前爱上的东西的新版本是有商业意义的。但是,如果熟悉开始滋生轻蔑,会发生什么呢?

This backward-looking approach isn’t just bad for consumers, who are encouraged to confine themselves for the familiar and safe. Eventually, it will be bad for the Walt Disney Co., too. Even nostalgia has its limits, both in terms of how much appetite consumers have for reliving their pasts, as well as for how much of the company’s past that’s available to resurrect. A vital part of the Disney tradition is genuine creativity: At some point, maybe the House of Mouse’s nostalgia trip will encourage Disney to start inventing the future again instead of merely mining the past.

这种向后看的方法不仅对消费者不利,而且鼓励他们将自己局限于熟悉和安全的领域。最终,这对华特迪士尼公司也不利。即便是怀旧也有其局限性,既包括消费者对重温过去的胃口有多大,也包括公司有对过经典的重振。迪士尼传统的一个重要组成部分是真正的创造力:也许在某一点,老鼠之家的怀旧之旅会鼓励迪士尼重新开始创造未来,而不仅仅是挖掘过去。

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