伯尔赫斯·弗雷德里克·斯金纳 (B.F. Skinner, 1904 – 1990)

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伯尔赫斯·弗雷德里克·斯金纳 (Burrhus Frederic Skinner, 1904 - 1990),是美国心理学家、行为主义者、作家、发明家和社会哲学家。从1958年到1974年退休,他一直是哈佛大学的心理学教授。他对操作性条件反射和强化计划的研究在今天仍然很重要,这些技术仍然被用于心理学、教育、动物训练和其他领域。

英汉智慧语录 English and Chinese Brainy Quotes

Fame is also won at the expense of others. Even the well-deserved honors of the scientist or man of learning are unfair to many persons of equal achievements who get none. When one man gets a place in the sun, the others are put in a denser shade. From the point of view of the whole group there's no gain whatsoever, and perhaps a loss.
名声的获得也是以牺牲他人为代价的。即使是科学家或学者应得的荣誉,对许多获得的成绩相同却没有得到任何荣誉的人来说也是不公平的。当一个人得到了阳光下的地方,其他的人就会被安置在更稠密的阴凉处。从整个团队的角度来看,没有任何收获,也许还有损失。

If you're old, don't try to change yourself, change your environment.
如果你老了,不要试图改变自己,改变你的环境。

If you insist that individual rights are the summum bonum, then the whole structure of society falls down.
如果你坚持认为个人权利是至高无上的,那么整个社会结构就会崩溃。

The ideal of behaviorism is to eliminate coercion: to apply controls by changing the environment in such a way as to reinforce the kind of behavior that benefits everyone.
行为主义的理想是消除强制:通过改变环境来实施控制,以强化对每个人都有利的行为。

We shouldn't teach great books; we should teach a love of reading. Knowing the contents of a few works of literature is a trivial achievement. Being inclined to go on reading is a great achievement.
我们不应该教授伟大的书籍;我们应该教人们爱读书。知道几部文学作品的内容是微不足道的成就。能够继续阅读是一项伟大的成就。

Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
人的行为是由其结果塑造和维持的。

The ideal of behaviorism is to eliminate coercion: to apply controls by changing the environment in such a way as to reinforce the kind of behavior that benefits everyone.
行为主义的理想是消除强制: 通过改变环境来实施控制,以强化对每个人都有利的行为。

A person who has been punished is not thereby simply less inclined to behave in a given way; at best, he learns how to avoid punishment.
受到惩罚的人并不是简单地更不会倾向于再去触犯;最好的情况是,他学会了如何避免惩罚。


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