南京长江大桥何以永远改变了中国

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How the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge changed China forever

南京长江大桥何永远改变了中国

Updated 2nd August 2017  Written bySerenitie Wang, CNN Andrea Lo, CNN

2017年8月2日更新     作者: CNN serenitie Wang  CNN Andrea Lo报道

1 / 10 -The poster, designed by Zhang Yuqing, shows off the bridge in all its glory. Both local and foreign visitors are portrayed. International Institute of Social History

1/10 -张玉清(音)设计的海报展示了这座桥的辉煌,描绘了当地和外地游客。国际社会历史研究所

2 / 10 -This poster by the Revolutionary Committee of the Jiangsu Revolutionary Literature and Art University shows off its dual functions in transportation. The upper deck forms part of a major highway while a railway is installed on the lower deck. International Institute of Social History

2 / 10——这张由江苏革命文艺大学革命委员会制作的海报,展示了南京长江大桥在交通运输方面的双层功能。上层为主要公路的一部分,下层为铁路。国际社会历史研究所

3 / 10 -This poster was designed by the Nanjing Great Bridge Workers Creative Group and the Revolutionary Publishing Group of the Shanghai Publication System. The poster is a propaganda effort that aimed to promote Maoism.

Scroll through the gallery for propaganda illustrations depicting the bridge from a collection of posters owned by the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam. International Institute of Social History

3 / 10 -此海报为南京大桥工人创作小组和上海出版局下属单位——革命出版社共同设计。该海报旨在推广毛泽东思想。

通过浏览阿姆斯特丹国际社会历史研究所(International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam)收藏的海报,你会看到有许多描绘这座桥的宣传插图。国际社会历史研究所

4 / 10 -Portraying Chairman Mao front and center, this poster reads "A great victory for Chairman Mao's proletarian revolutionary line." It was designed by the Nanjing Great Bridge Workers Creative Group and the Revolutionary Publishing Group of the Shanghai Publication System. International Institute of Social History

4/10 -这幅海报将毛主席为作为前景,布局在画面的中央。海报上面写着“毛主席的无产阶级革命路线的伟大胜利”。它是由南京大桥工人创作小组和上海出版局下属单位——革命出版社共同设计的。国际社会历史研所

5 / 10 -Celebrating the victory of the bridge's construction, this poster features illustrations of workers holding up a portrait of Mao Zedong. They are also seen with a copy of the Little Red Book. International Institute of Social History

5/10 -为庆祝大桥建设的胜利,这幅海报以工人们高举毛泽东画像为特色。他们还带着一本红宝书。国际社会历史研究所

6 / 10 -This poster by an unknown designer features a quote from Mao on the right: "China's people have drive and strength -- we have to reach and overtake levels of advancement across the world."

The bridge's magnolia-shaped street lamps can be seen clearly in the illustration. The bottom left reads "the magnificent Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge." International Institute of Social History

6/10 -这张海报出自一位不知名的设计师之手,右边是毛的语录:“中国人民有志气,有能力——赶上和超过世界进步水平。

“图中可以清楚地看到桥上木玉兰形的路灯。左下角写着“雄伟的南京长江大桥”。国际社会历史研究所

7 / 10 -Designed by the Revolutionary Culture University of Jiangsu Province, this poster shows people marching towards the bridge. The bridge itself features sculptures depicting peasants, workers and soldiers. International Institute of Social History

7/10 -这张海报由江苏省革命文化大学设计,展示了人们走向大桥的场景。这座桥本身就以描述工、农、兵的雕塑为特色。国际社会历史研究所

8 / 10 -A bridge stretches in a North-South direction. Designed by a creative group at the Jiangsu Provincial Cadre School, this poster attempts to illustrate the ease in transport the bridge provides. International Institute of Social History

8/10 –一桥飞架南北。这张海报由江苏省干部学校的一个创作小组设计,试图说明这座桥给交通带来的便利。国际社会历史研究所

9 / 10 -This poster, designed by Hu Jinye, shows soldiers remaining on guard at their posts on the bridge during the night of a holiday. International Institute of Social History

9/10 -这张海报是胡金叶(音)设计的,画的是假日夜晚,士兵们守在桥上的哨所。国际社会历史研究所

10 / 10 -Created by an unknown designer, this poster shows the bridge's upper and lower decks, as well as water traffic down below. International Institute of Social History

10 / 10——这幅海报由一位不知名的设计师创作,展示了这座桥的上、下桥面,以及桥下的水上交通。国际社会历史研究所

China may be home to both the longest and highest bridges in the world, but neither is as pioneering as the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge. Built during China's tumultuous Cultural Revolution, the double-decked bridge was considered groundbreaking when it was unveiled in 1968.

But more importantly to some, it was also the first modern bridge to be designed and built by China without help from foreign architects.

中国或许拥有世界上最长、最高的桥梁,但论及创举,二者皆无法与南京长江大桥相提并论。这座双层桥梁建于中国动荡的文革时期,1968年揭幕时它被认为具有开创性。

而对一些人来说,更重要的是,该桥也是中国在没有外国建筑师帮助的情况下,自行设计和建造的第一座现代桥梁。

As major repairs get underway ahead of next year's 50th anniversary, the bridge remains a source of pride in Nanjing, China's former capital. A project commissioned by railway officials hopes to secure the bridge's legacy by documenting its history, according to the initiative's head Lu Andong, a professor at Nanjing University's School of Architecture and Urban Planning.

明年南京建桥50周年之前,大桥的大修工作正在进行中,这座桥仍然是中国前首都南京的骄傲之一。城市遗产保护倡议人——南京大学建筑与城市规划学院教授卢安东(音)表示,铁路官员委托的一个项目希望通过记录桥梁的历史来保护大桥的遗产。

"The bridge was so important, and it's undoubtedly a symbol of the city," he said. "It is being repaired for transportation and safety purposes, but I would relish the chance to transform the bridge's tower and the affiliated park into places of memory."

“这座桥是如此非常重要,以至于它无可争议地成为这座城市的一个象征,”他说。“出于运输和安全的考虑,它正在进行修缮,但我很高兴有机会将大桥的塔身和附属公园改建成城市的记忆之地。”

The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge opened in 1968. Credit: Zhang qingmin/AP

南京长江大桥于1968年通车。来源:张庆民/美联社

Made in China

China had initially hoped to build Nanjing's bridge with its communist allies, the USSR. Having already helped construct a crossing at Wuhan (about 280 miles up the river), the Soviets once again offered technical assistance. But soon after construction began in 1960, relations between the two nations soured.

中国制造

中国最初希望与共产主义盟友苏联一起修建南京大桥的。此前苏联帮助武汉(南京溯江而上约280英里处)修建了一个渡口,并再次答应提供技术援助。但1960年开工后不久,两国关系开始恶化。

Wang Shiqing is pictured with railway tickets featuring illustrations of the bridge, part of his vast collection. Credit: Xu Qi

图为王世庆(音)拿着印有大桥插图的火车票,这是他庞大收藏的一部分。照片提供者:许奇

Soviet experts withdrew from the project ahead of the Sino-Soviet split -- the breakdown of relations between the world's largest communist powers from 1960. The bridge was nonetheless completed eight years later. China considered the accomplishment to be a major feat of engineering -- and a propaganda victory.

苏联专家在中苏分裂之前退出了该项目。中苏分裂是指从1960年开始,世界上两个最大的共产主义国家关系破裂。尽管如此,这座桥还是在8年后建成了。中国认为这一成就是一项重大的工程壮举,也是宣传上的胜利。

At over 5,000 feet long, the bridge carries both cars and trains. Its upper deck is a four-lane highway with sidewalks, while the railway tracks are now part of the Beijing-Shanghai train route.

这座桥有5000多英尺长,可以同时承载汽车和火车。它的上层是带有人行道的四车道公路,而铁路层现在是京沪高铁线路的一部分。

"Everybody loves the bridge," said Wang Shiqing, a longtime Nanjing resident who has collected over 1,000 pieces of Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge memorabilia. "It's a source of pride, especially for local Nanjing people," he says.

“每个人都喜欢这座桥,”长期居住在南京的王世清(音译)说。他收集了超过1000件南京长江大桥的纪念品。他说:“这是一个骄傲的源泉,尤其对南京本地人而言。”

New beginnings

As with other notable bridges -- like San Francisco's Golden Gate -- the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge has become a popular suicide spot. However, for Nanjing's residents, it is best known for transforming life in the city.

新的开始

与旧金山金门等其他著名大桥一样,南京长江大桥也成为了一个热门的自杀地点。然而,对于南京的居民来说,它以改变城市生活而著称。

Before the bridge was built, people and goods could only cross the river by ferry. Trains passing through the city would have to be disassembled and loaded onto boats in order to continue their journey.

该桥建成之前,人与货物只能通过摆渡过河。为了继续他们的旅程,穿过城市的火车必须被拆解装上渡轮。

Upon its completion, the bridge changed the lives of the city's residents."In terms of the function, it made people's lives so much easier," said Wang, who was born the same year the bridge was opened. "It reduced the river crossing time and served as the main artery for north-south transportation."

time and served as the main artery for north-south transportation."

建成后的大桥,改变了城市居民的生活。“就功能而言,它让人们的生活变得容易多了,”王说。“它缩短了过河时间,成为一个南北交通的枢纽。”

并成为南北交通的主干线的一部分。

A 'pop icon of modernity'

As well as sculptures of peasants, workers and soldiers, the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge also features Mao Zedong quotes and a 230-foot statue of the former leader.

现代流行偶像”

南京长江大桥不仅有农民、工人和士兵的雕像,还有毛泽东语录和一座230英尺高的前领导人雕像。

"The red flags and magnolia decorations are very Chinese," Wang said, referring to the three flag-shaped sculptures found at the top of the bridge's towers.

“红旗和玉兰装饰极具中国特色,”王说,他指的是大桥塔顶的三面红旗造型的雕塑。

This particular design reflects the "Three Red Banners" -- a major propaganda campaign during the Cultural Revolution. The "banners" represented ideologies that called for the construction of a socialist state in China.

这个特别的设计反映了“三面红旗”——文革时期的一场重要宣传运动。这些“旗帜”代表了中国建设社会主义国家的意识形态。

"The completion of the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge is a great victory of Mao Zedong thought" (1970)

This poster was designed by the Nanjing Great Bridge Workers Creative Group and the Revolutionary Publishing Group of the Shanghai Publication System. The poster is a propaganda effort that aimed to promote Maoism. Scroll through the gallery for propaganda illustrations depicting the bridge from a collection of posters owned by the International Institute of Social Historyin Amsterdam.

“南京长江大桥的建成是毛泽东思想的伟大胜利”(1970)

这张海报是由南京大桥工人创作小组和上海出版局下属单位——革命出版社共同设计的。这张海报是旨在宣传毛泽东思想的一种宣传手段。阿姆斯特丹国际社会历史研究所收藏的海报中,你可以看到描述这座桥的宣传插图。

The bridge often appeared in propaganda posters, which were keen to imply that the structure represented a "great victory of Mao Zedong Thought" (the political theory known outside China as "Maoism"). One such poster featured a quote from Mao: "Chinese people have drive and strength -- we have to reach and overtake levels of advancement across the world."

这座桥经常出现在宣传海报上,海报上热衷于暗示它代表着“毛泽东思想的伟大胜利”(在国外被称为“毛泽东主义”的政治理论)。其中一张海报引用了毛的话:“中国人有决心,有力量——必须达到并超越世界进步水平。”

Erected during a turbulent time in China's history, the bridge had far-reaching cultural impact, according to Lu.

"This bridge is one of the most recognized achievements of the Cultural Revolution era," he said. "It is both a political monument and a symbol of technological and historical success. Its image appeared on cups, pencils, shoes, mirrors, cigarettes and bicycles nationwide -- the bridge became a pop icon of modernity."

据陆说,这座桥建于中国历史上一个动荡的时期,有着深远的文化影响。

他说:“这座桥是文革时期最被认可的成就之一。”“它既是一座政治纪念碑,也是技术和历史成功的一个标志。它的形象出现在全国各地的杯子、铅笔、鞋子、镜子、香烟以及自行车上——这座桥成了现代的流行偶像。”

The legacy of the bridge also lives on through the people who were named after it. According to Wang, many people in Nanjing named their firstborns Chang Jiang (Chinese for "Yangtze") and their second Da Qiao (which means "big bridge").

这座桥的遗产也被那些以它取名的传承了下来。王说,南京很多人给他们的长子取名为长江(中文称“扬子”),给他们的次子取名为大桥。

Restoring former glories

In April 2016 the National Development and Reform Commission, China's state planning body, approved a 27-month program of repairs to the bridge. According to a government report, "safety and durability risks" were key factors in the decision.

重树昔日辉煌

2016年4月,中国国家规划机构——国家发展和改革委员会批准了一项为期27个月的大桥维修计划。根据一份政府报告,“安全和耐久性风险”是决定过程中的关键因素。

But the structure will be getting a facelift too. A $160.7 million (RMB 1.09 billion) investment will be used to restore some of the iconic statues, including those found on nearby river banks. Sculptures on the bridge will be reinforced, with handrails and piers also undergoing renovations.

但该建筑也将进行翻新。一项1.607亿美元(10.9亿人民币)的投资将用于修复一些标志性雕像,包括在附近河岸发现的雕像。大桥上的雕塑将得到加固,扶手和桥墩也将进行翻新。

With younger generations less aware of the bridge's historical significance, Lu hopes that the renovations will restore not only the bridge, but the city's interest in it.

由于年轻一代对这座桥的历史意义知之甚少,陆希望这次修缮不仅能修复这座桥,还能重建这座城市的居民对它的兴趣。

"The older generation obviously takes more pride in the bridge," he said. "It is very important to re-access the memory of the bridge in a creative way, to allow people of all ages to experience and understand the memories of it.

See gallery above for propaganda illustrations depicting the bridge from posters collected by the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam.

“老一代显然对这座桥更有自豪感,”他说。“以一种创造性的方式来重新存储记忆是非常重要的,让所有年龄层的人都能体验和理解这座桥的记忆。”

从阿姆斯特丹国际社会历史研究所收集的海报上可以看到描述这座桥的宣传插图。

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