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We had an absolutely perfect day with our tour guide - Rogin Luo - who took us for a hike along The Great Wall! Didn't know what to expect and were thrilled to have him as our guide. Very imformative, knowledgable and fun! We go to experience a part of The Great Wall that was unrestored and see all its natural beauty. Got a long history lesson along the way!

After the hike, we all went to lunch at a small place at the bottom of the hill. Located in a house, we ate lunch in the proprietors bedroom! What a hoot! Rogin is the Best of the Best! This tour company delivered for us and we are extremely grateful.

Karenkatz,
Westborough, Massachusetts
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Home  »  China Travel Guide  »  Chinese Culture  »  Religion and Beliefs  »  Confucianism
Confucianism

Confucianism is also known as Confucian thoughts or Confucian ideas, founded by Confucius, originally referring to the master of ceremonies, then gradually developed into a hierarchy levels of benevolence as the core ideology. It is the most influential schools of China and the mainstream consciousness in Ancient China. Confucian school had a profound impact in China, East Asia and the world.

Founder of Confucianism Confucius was first one to break the monopoly of the old ruling class education situation for changing "the official lectures" to "private lectures". So that the traditional Chinese culture and education broadcasted to the entire nation. As a result, Confucianism have a solid foundation of national psychology, then Confucianism was gradually accepted by the whole society and the whole society.

Formation and Development of Confucianism
Prior to the Confucian school, the ancient nobility and social officials learnt social education from through the "teacher" and "Confucian scholar" to accept the traditional six virtues (wisdom, faith, holy, benevolence, righteousness, loyalty), six behaviors (piety, Friends, Harmony, marriage, responsibility, solicitude ), six arts (ritual, music, shooting, defense, books, number).

Seen from the content of teaching perspective, the ancient Chinese society education is entirely based on the specific values of the Chinese nation formed in long-term living environment, cultural factors on the habits, practices, norms and guidelines. Confucian school absorb these cultural elements and rise to the level of theory of the system.


















Background
Chinese culture had gone through a history of more than 1700 years. By the end of Warring States period, Confucius set up the Confucianism. Confucianism founded by Confucius is a complete system of thought on the basis of summarizing, generalizing and inheriting the traditional culture of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties.

In Eastern Zhou period, Chinese society is undergoing a historical epoch-making change. Zhou royal family declined, princes was expanding and the society was in turmoil. This time, intellectuals on behalf of the class interests was unusually active and became an important social force. They came to the stage of history one after another, wrote books, propose solutions to the problem of social reality, the formation of philosophers contending prosperity. The greatest impact came from Confucianism and Legalism, Taoism, Mohism. They respectively designed a unified governance program for the emerging landlord class which was also the foundation of social choice rule for Qin and Han dynasties.

In the Spring and Autumn Period, deep crisis due to internal social contradictions which was not adjustable shook the authority of traditional culture. The suspicion spirit and critics for traditional culture was growing. As a result, in order to establish a new order and harmony in social practice mental balance, Confucius had to inject the spirit of the age at the time of Confucius into their own the ideological system, and to transform the traditional culturally appropriately.

Development
Dong Zhongshu proposed "grand unification" and” Ban from hundred philosophers, venerate Confucianism" stressed the Confucianism as the state fundamental philosophy, to prevent other ideology. Emperor Wu of Han accepted his proposition. Since then, Confucianism became orthodox thinking, study the classics of classics has become a significant learning. At this point, Confucius died for three hundred years. Dong Zhongshu developed specific part of Taoism, and Confucianism Naturalists in favor of feudal emperors to form a new Confucianism.

In the course of the popularity of Confucianism in the Han Dynasty, many social problems was resolved. Confucianism tend benevolent government management of state administration, politicians on this basis, to limit excessive concentration of land, build a sound moral system. To the Emperor Wu of Han period, Dong Zhongshu based on Confucianism as the mainstream Legalism line for assistance, adopting both reasonable Taoist thought, laying the basic pattern of Chinese feudal society ruled thought.


















Three Doctrine
Confucian basically adhere to the "respect those who need to be respected and close to those who need to be close to" legislative principles. Confucianism maintain rule by rites, advocate rule of virtue and emphasize benevolent administration. Confucianism has great influence on feudal society and it was long regarded as a feudal ruler’s orthodox thinking.

The doctrine of rule by rites
The fundamental meaning rule by rites Confucian doctrine is "different", that is rich and poor, superiors and inferiors and seniors and juniors has its own special code of conduct. The management of a country depends on a stable level of order or not. Confucian "ritual" is also a form of law. It is based on the core of maintaining the patriarchal hierarchy, such as the violation of the "rites" of the specification, they are subject to "law" punishment.

The doctrine of rule of virtue
Confucian "Virtue" doctrine that advocated moral education to influence people. According to Confucian thought, both good and evil, can be used to influence the moral to educate people. This indoctrination way, is a psychological transformation, so that the people of goodness, treacherous heart knows the shame. This is the most thorough, fundamental and positive ways which cannot be reached by legal punishments.

The doctrine of benevolent administration
Confucian "rule of man" doctrine, is the emphasis on people's specialization, attention to moral development. It may emphasis on human compassion, treat them as you can change and can have very complex choices and ethical nature. Confucius looked the "benevolence" as the highest moral principles, ethical standards and moral realm. He first put the whole ethics in one set, formed a "benevolence" as the core structure of ethics, which includes filial piety, brother (fraternal), loyalty, forgiveness, courtesy, knowledge, courage, respect, lenience, trust, agility, kindness and so on. "Benevolence" is the core of Confucianism and it has a significant impact the development of Chinese culture and society.





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